Relativity Science Calculator - 4 - Vector Analysis .
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4 - Vector Analysis for Bodies or Particles of Matter

"The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking" - Albert Einstein ( 1879 - 1955 )

"Whence arises all that order and beauty we see in the world?" - Issac Newton, Opticks ( 1643 - 1727 )

"The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education" - Albert Einstein ( 1879 - 1955 )

The Problem

It's an accepted á priori postulate of all types of physics ( Galileo, Newton, Einstein's Special and General relativity ) that the form of all of these mathematical physics laws maintain the same invariant form in all reference frames, whether inertial ( non - accelerating ) as in Special Relativity or the more generalized non - inertial frames ( accelerating ) as in General Relativity.

So it was earlier stated in regards to Special Relativity, the following:

The Principle of Special Relativity - All the laws of physics in their simplest reduced form are Lorentz - transformable and hence form - invariant as between an infinite number of moving reference systems, each one of which is moving uniformly and rectilinearly with respect to any other system and where no one system is privileged or preferred over any other reference ( inertial ) system when measurements of length or time are taken.

However as Einstein proceeded into his General Theory wherein he was dealing with accelerating ( non - inertial ) frames of reference in addition to those of his previous Special Theory, it became necessary for him to propound his General Covariance Principle of Relativity or simply The General Principle of Relativity:

The General Covariance Principle of Relativity - All the laws of physics whether manifested in inertial ( special relativity ) or non - inertial ( general relativity accelerating ) frames, are form - invariant as regards the Lorentz transformation equations expressed as valid covariant tensors where in the presence of bodies of matter possessing mass the geometry of spacetime becomes geodetic or curved, otherwise identified as "gravity's effect" or simply 'gravity':

"The laws of physics must be of such a nature that they apply to systems of reference in any kind of motion"
- The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity, 1916, by A. Einstein

So the problem is that in the case of ordinary einstein spacial coordinates for time and velocities, nothing really is Lorentz form - invariant especially as regards time and velocity, all of which will be overcome by enlisting proper time relativistic time first and foremost in all future special and general relativity equations regarding time, velocity, energy, momentum and acceleration for the motion of bodies of matter possessing mass along world timelines in four - dimensional space and time.


§ Define:

event horizon

§ Lorentz transformations in spacetime - space:

However in relativistic mass - space where the invariant properties of space - time are invoked under Lorentz transformation equations, we get

schwarzschild radius

Namely that in Euclidean Lorentz-FitzGerald transformation - space, nothing is Lorentz time - invariant and hence in violation of the Principle of Relativity for form - invariance of the equations of special and general relativity physics!

§ Normalization with The Lorentz ( Correction ) Factor:

spacial time

That is, with the extra help from the Lorentz ( correction ) Factor, the Euclidean invariant Lorentz transformation - space can be brought into special relativity - space compliance under invariant Lorentz transformations by simply utilizing proper time instead of spacial or coordinate time!

§ The Light Sphere and Invariant Proper Time minkowski light sphere:

Of course all of the pseudo - Euclidean, Minkowski special relativity equations ultimately derive from the form - invariant light sphere equation under Lorentz transfomation:

hermann bondi


hermann minkowski

for which

invariant proper time

See: "Minkowski's Space - Time Light Cone"

The Solution

But all of the above invariant 4-vector - and einstein - space inconsistencies are brought into invariant Lorentz transformation compliance simply by invoking the Lorentz form - invariant proper time invariant proper mass where

4-vector analysis

The 4 - Velocity Vector

§ Defining World Timeline Coordinates:

4-vector analysis

§ Velocity over a world timeline path:

tensor analysis

§ Defining the 4 - Velocity Vector:

equivalence gravity principle

and for which special relativity is the 4 - velocity vector tangent to the World Timeline path of the body or particle of matter in motion possessing mass, thereby satisfying the Lorentz transformation equations for invariance ( of proper time and invariant distance intervals on the surface of an ever expanding light sphere ) between relatively moving general relativity, 4-vector body analysis systems:

photon rocket

§ Corollary:

mathematical relativity physics

Case 1: material body of matter possessing mass:


Case 2: zero rest mass, wave - like particle ( photon or graviton ), where quantum physics:

relativity science calculator

This is a null 4 - velocity vector which is also invariant with respect to proper time relativity science.

That is, in Case 2 we can now identify the null 4 - velocity vector for light photons comprising a sphere of light such that

relativity einstein

where the invariant space - time distance separating light photons on the surface of an ever expanding sphere of light has zero length !

The 4 - Momentum Vector

4-momentum vector

Massless Photons

massless photons

To the point: only light and gravity are pure energy and travel thru spacetime as null vectors!!

The 4 - Acceleration Vector

4-acceleration vector

Please note: for the 4 - Acceleration Vector mathematical analysis it's necessary to gain access to the General Relativity parts of this mathematical essay by contacting the author of Relativity Science Calculator. Thank you for understanding.

The 4 - Force Vector

Deriving the 4 - force vector in general relativity

Again please note: for the 4 - Force Vector mathematical analysis it's necessary to gain access to the General Relativity parts of this mathematical essay by contacting the author of Relativity Science Calculator. Thank you for understanding.

max planck

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