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quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless


e=mc2

"Sir, an equation has no meaning for me unless it expresses a thought of GOD." - Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan ( 1887 - 1920, India )
( beyond brilliant mathematical number theorist, self-taught, exceedingly poor to periods of literal starvation )

1). Laws of Conservation of Relativistic Momentum and Energy:

physics conservation laws

1a). Example of Relativistic ( or Effective ) Momentum:

Let quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless rest mass in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless, achieve a relative velocity of quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless, say 0.88quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless, to a stationary observer in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless.

Therefore, the relativistic or effective mass calculated by our stationary observer in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  is given by

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

And, relativistic momentum in terms of "classical momentum" of  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  is simply derived as follows:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

note: this example is used in the future upcoming Relativity Physics and Science Calculator Mac application

The Invariant Energy - Momentum Vector

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

2). invariance_E2.png:

Because of different relative velocities for different observers in different frames of reference, the values of quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless and quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless ( momentum and energy respectively ) will accordingly be different for different observers residing in different systems.

However,

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

will always have the same value for all observers in all moving frames of reference. This essentially states that the magnitude of the energy - momentum vector is equal to the mass rest energy, where in particle physics rest mass, also known as proper mass,

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless,

is invariant for all observers in all frames of reference.

Here's a simple heuristic for this vital relationship:

heuristic

Another important energy - momentum relationship is given by

momentum_energy_velocity.png

and appears in nature for a quanta of light energy where  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  as follows: 

another_momentum_energy.png

2a). Derivation of momentum energy velocity:

pc.png

2b). Derivation of quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

Also please notice that the rest mass of a quanta of light energy is always zero since there is no reference frame in which the light photon is at rest and hence the following is further confirmation of nature's reality:

momentum equals energy divided by c

This last equation expresses the relationship between the momentum of a quanta light photon and the energy of a flash of light. This relationship was also used by Einstein in his proof of the fundamental law of the inertia of energy.

2c). Much Simpler Derivation of quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

2d). Example for quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:∗∗∗∗

The classical electron radius is

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

According to T. Jacobson, Department of Physics, University of Oslo, whose paper in pdf,  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless "An empirical mass formula for quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless and quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless leptons and some remarks on trident production", February 2, 2008, suggests the electron may itself possess an inner constituent structure, therefore for the sake of argument let's say that some unknown constituent of the electron has rest mass of

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

Using Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, the unknown constituent must reside somewhere within the classical electron radius and hence

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

∗∗∗∗note: this example is used in the future upcoming Relativity Physics and Science Calculator Mac application

2e). Now we'll prove the  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:

i). Let  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless have relative velocity quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless as it moves away from system  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless.  Also assume that a mass - particle has velocity  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless. Then by the addition of relativistic velocities  we also know that 

mass-particle velocity

will be the velocity of a mass - particle for an observer in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless.

Finally, assume the following:

momentum energy schema

Here we go:

Let  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless = 1, unity, where velocities  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless,  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  are simply some fraction of  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  in both  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  and  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless systems. [ note: we make  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  as a unity in order to simplify our equations and will bring it back at  the end of our mathematical endeavors as will shortly be seen. ] Hence the following is also true:

momentum derivation.

ii). Continuing ... 

Energy derivation

iii). We can thus see that

analogous Lorentz transformations.png

Hence the Lorentz transformations for these energies and momenta for a mass - particle moving with velocity  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless as they are viewed in  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  are indeed invariant!

iv). A corollary: assuming that  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless is moving not strictly parallel to the x - axis of  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless,  then we have these vector components respectively

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

End of proof.

2f). The significance of  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaninglessMathematical References - Part IIIstraight - line of sight Dopplerstraight - line of sight Doppler

But more importantly, the invariance of the "energy - momentum" vector determines the fact that rest mass quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless is always a constant notwithstanding that between each respective moving reference frame, differing amounts of relativistic mass will be observed and hence measured!

Common sense, of course, dictates that whenever you as the observer are stationary relative to a body of mass that that mass will not only be at rest but also that the "amount" of rest mass remains constant ! It is only when a body of mass begins to move at a significant fraction of the speed of light relative to you as the observer, that the body of mass begins to "grow" in quantity!! Still, relativity mathematics confirms any person's common sense understanding that rest ( or proper ) mass is always a constant.

Finally, the invariance of the "energy - momentum" vector simply expresses the conservation of total energy precisely because it is invariant under Lorentz transformation!

3). Computing quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless or quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

If we know either quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless or quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless of a mass - particle or a quanta of energy, the obverse is easily derived.

For example, a flash of light is relativistically pure kinetic energy with rest mass  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless = 0  ( since it is meaningless to speak of a frame of reference where light photons or "light quanta" are ever at rest )  and velocity  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless.

Hence,

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

which is what Einstein used in his proof of the fundamental law of the inertia of light energy ! That is, massless light photons and gravitons possess only relativistically pure kinetic energy and momentum.

On the other hand, for a body or particle of matter possessing mass but no momentum ( i.e., quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless ) where the object is simply residing in its rest frame, the "Energy - Momentum Equation" reduces to the famous Einstein equation for total relativistic energy  as given by:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

4). light as a "packet" or quanta of energy :

Because light is composed of relativistically pure kinetic energy with velocity  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  always in all frames of reference, and 

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

this formulation breaks down completely and is in fact irrelevant for light energy as follows:

rest mass meaningless

Moreover, we do have the following quantum or wave relationship between light energy and frequency:

quantum definition

But nevertheless from before

light as wave

4a). Proof of photon rest ( or proper ) mass = 0 :

Analogous to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitational Force Attraction, we also have Coulomb's Law of Force Attraction between charged electrical particles:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

For any photon, therefore, to be at rest, it will have to exist at an infinite distance in space - time from any other [ arbitrary ] photon in space - time in order that

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

By applying Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

4b). If the photon rest ( or proper ) mass = 0, how come light is bent in a gravity field? :

Newton's Theory of Gravity requires that there be two masses at a given distance ( Einstein: spooky 'action at a distance' ) from each other for a force of attraction to exist between them:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

The answer lies in Einstein's General Theory of Relativity which differs from Newton's concept of space and time as follows:


quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

In other words, it is not that one body of mass directly attracts another body of mass, but rather that bodies of mass deform the fabric of spacetime and therefore bodies of mass follow a path of least energy expenditure according to both the mathematics of Hamilton's Principle and Einstein's General Relativity Physics mathematics which Einstein interestingly and recursively derived from William Rowan Hamilton ( 1805 - 1865 )'s Principle! See: "Hamilton's Principle And The General Theory of Relativity", by A. Einstein, translated from "Hamiltonsches Princip und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie", found in "The Principle of Relativity", Dover Publications, Inc.

Therefore, The bending of light as it passes close by a gravity field induced by a body of mass is not that there's a direct Newtonian mutual force of attraction between massless photons and a body of mass such as the sun, but rather that a relativistic beam of light photons in motion ( i.e., photons not at rest! ), therefore possessing relativistic or effective mass, follows a path of least energy expenditure as laid down by the fabric of spacetime  prescribed by the nearby body of mass!

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

It was Sir Arthur Eddington ( 1882 - 1944 ) who famously travelled to Portuguese - speaking Isle Principe, an island in the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa, on May 29, 1919 during a total solar eclipse, to tentatively confirm Einstein's 1915 General Theory of Relativity:

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless
source: Google maps

The final and strongest confirmation of General Relativity Physics mathematics for the bending of starlight across the sun's corona came during a solar eclipse in Australia when American astronomer William Wallace Campbell ( 1862 - 1938, Director Lick Observatory from 1901 to 1930 ) in 1922 provided the final and most definitive empirical confirmation for Einstein's general relativity physics mathematics.

See:  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  "On the influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" ( "Über den Einfluß der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes" ), by Albert Einstein, Annalen der Physik 35(10): 898 - 908, 1911, in the original German.

Also:  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless  "On the influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light", by Albert Einstein, Annalen der Physik 35(10): 898 - 908, 1911, English version, translator Michael D. Godfrey, Information Systems Lab, Stanford University. Click here for a 2nd English translation version.

5). Example of light as a "packet" or quanta of energy from Israeli - Weapons YouTube site :

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless Click here for US and quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless Israel Weapons systems development: MTHEL ( Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser ) movie


Also, Boeing's 2013 HEL MD example:


Boeing's HEL MD ( High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator )© 2013: "... putting photons on target!"
source: http://bcove.me/ts6kzcmg

We are therefore left with the following conclusions regarding photon light:

▶ The explanation of light as a mass - particle or photon, where rest mass  quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless = 0, is not an entirely satisfactory concept nor even as a fully comprehensive explanation; rather light is  somewhat more akin to a probabilistic wave function where exact location and momentum for the "light quanta" are inherently and simultaneously "uncertain".

The better equations for a "packet" or quanta of light energy  thus becomes

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

▶ Corollaries to all of this:

(i). If so - called light mass - particles or photons exhibit probabilistic wave function characteristics, then why not other mass - particles? Sub - atomic particles for instance?? In other words, all matter and not just light possesses a wave - particle duality  which is precisely the de Broglie Hypothesis of Louis de Broglie for which he was awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physics.

(ii). Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Werner Heisenberg was a celebrated German physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 for Quantum Mechanics ( he also was a loyal Nazi in Hitler's Germany who was working on Hitler's "secret projects" [ or was he slowling them down according to some historians? ] as well as [ perhaps? this part is not so certain ] on the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish Question" and the "American Question" ), nevertheless his major contribution to atomic physics can be somewhat easily  described as follows:

quantum probability densities

Dirac's Constant

Summary

quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless


quantum light photon  rest-mass is meaningless

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