Relativity Science Calculator  Appendix
"Mass is a phenomenon of connecting light rays which go back and forth, sort of freezing them into a pattern. So matter, as it were, is condensed or frozen light", Dialogues with Scientists and Sages, 1986  David Bohm, Ph.D. ( 1917  1992, born Jewish  American, Manhattan Project, Israel's Technion ), theoretical Physicist, a close Einstein colleague at Princeton University's Institute for Advanced Study
Kepler's 3rd Law
Newton & Kepler: Circular Velocity and Acceleration Planetary Equations
What is the Connection between Proper vs. Relativistic?  

Proper ( at rest, co  moving ) 
Lorentz Factor < ( the connector ) > 
Relativistic ( in motion, at a distance ) 

invariant, constant time  relativistic time  
invariant, constant length  relativistic length  
invariant, constant mass  in special relativity: relativistic, inertial or effective mass in general relativity: inertial mass == gravitational mass 


The Relation between Proper Time vs. Coordinate Time  

Newton vs. Einstein: Motion, Time, Mass and Gravity
Motion
Newton: 'inertial' means uniform, non  accelerating, straight  line motion
Einstein: 'inertial' means non  accelerating; 'non  inertial' means accelerating motion
Time
Newton: time is constant, universally invariant
Einstein: time is relativistic ( relative ) depending upon clock separation distance and speed
Mass
Newton: mass is constant, universally invariant
Einstein: mass is relativistic ( relative ) depending upon body of matter possessing distance, velocity and acceleration ( equiv. gravity )
Gravity
Newton: instantaneous action at a distance
Einstein: finite speed travelling at the speed of light; best described, understood by a non  Euclidean geometry metric variable
mathematically identified by the "fundamental metric tensor",
Philosophically
Each of these qualities of external physical reality are intimately intertwined!!
That is, without one or the other, any remaining external quality in physics is meaningless!
Inertial Mass
Energy
Inertial Mass, Gravitational Mass, and the Geodetic ( Geodesic ) Equation
Gravity
Black Holes Event Horizon and Escape Velocity
^{∗∗∗}notice: these two equations are exactly the same!! Just substitute for . Voilá!
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